A battery is created by alternating two different metals such as Lead Dioxide (PbO2), the positive plates, and Sponger lead (Pb), the negative plates. Then the plates are immersed in diluted Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), the electrolyte. The types of metals and the electrolyte used will determine the output of a cell. A typical lead-acid battery produces approximately 2.1 volts per cell. The chemical action between the metals and the electrolyte creates the electrical energy. Energy flows from the battery as soon as there is an electrical load, for example, a starter motor that completes a circuit between the positive and negative terminals. The electrical current flows as charged portions of acid (ions) between the battery plates and as electrons through the external circuit. The action of the lead-acid storage battery is determined by chemicals used, state-of-charge, temperature, porosity, diffusion, and load determine the action of the lead-acid storage battery. Why do batteries die?
In cold climates, normally a battery “ages” as the active positive plate material sheds (or flakes off) due to the expansion and contraction that occurs during the discharge and recharge cycles. Brown sediment, called sludge or “mud,” builds up in the bottom of the case andcan short the cell out. In hot climates, additional causes of failure are positive grid growth, positive grid metal corrosion in the electrolyte, negative grid shrinkage, buckling of plates, or loss of water. Deep discharges, heat, vibration, over charging, under charging or non-use accelerate this “aging” process. Another major cause of premature battery failure is lead sulfation. Using tap water to refill batteries can produce calcium sulfate that also will coat the plates and fill the pores. Recharging a sulfated battery is like trying to wash your hands with gloves on. When the active material in the plates can no longer sustain a discharge current, the battery “dies."
In a hot climate, the harshest environment for a battery, AVERAGE life of a good quality car battery was 37 months. If your car battery is more than three years old, then it is living on borrowed time. Abnormally slow cranking, especially on a cold day, is another good indication that your battery is going bad; it should be externally recharged and load tested. Dead batteries almost always occur at the most inopportune times, for example, AFTER you have jump-started your car, in the airport after returning home from a long trip, during bad weather, late at night in a dark parking lot, or when you are late for an appointment. You can easily spend the cost of a new battery or more for an emergency jump start, a tow, or a taxi. Most of the “defective” batteries returned to manufacturers during free placement warranty periods are good. This suggests that most sellers of new batteries do not know how to or take the time to properly load test or recharge them.
Maintaining the correct electrolyte levels; tightening loose hold-down clamps and terminals; removing corrosion from both ends of each battery cable and both terminals; cleaning the battery top; and checking the alternator belt tension is normally the ONLY preventive maintenance required for a battery. The preventive maintenance frequency is dependent upon climate and battery type, but you should perform this at least once before cold weather starts and once a month in warm weather. If the electrolyte levels are low in non-sealed batteries, allow the battery to cool. Add DISTILLED water to the level indicated by the battery manufacturer or if there is no recommendation, to within 3 to 7 mm BELOW the bottom of the filler tube (vent wells or splash barrels). The plates need to be covered at all times. Avoid OVERFILLING, especially in hot climates, because heat causes the electrolyte to expand and overflow
There are seven simple steps in testing a car battery—inspect, recharge. If you have a non-sealed battery, it is highly recommended that you use a good quality, temperature-compensated hydrometer, which can be purchased at an auto parts store A hydrometer is a float-type device used to determine the state-of-charge by measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell. It is a very accurate way of determining a battery’s state-of-charge and weak or dead cells. To troubleshoot charging or electrical systems or if you have a sealed battery, you will need a digital voltmeter with 0.5% or better accuracy. A digital voltmeter can be purchased at an electronics store, such as Radio Shack,. Analog voltmeters are not accurate enough to measure the millivolt differences of a battery’s state-of-charge or the output of the charging system.
1- INSPECTVisually inspect for obvious problems: loose or broken alternator belt, electrolyte levels BELOW the top of the plates, dirty battery top, corroded or swollen cables, corroded terminal clamps, loose hold-down clamps, loose cable terminals, or a leaking or damaged battery case. If the electrolyte levels are low in non-sealed batteries, allow the battery to cool and add DISTILLED water to the level indicated by the battery manufacturer or to between 3 to 7 mm BELOW the bottom of the plastic filler tube (vent wells). The plates need to be covered at all times. Avoid OVERFILLING, especially in hot climates, becauseheat will cause the electrolyte to expand and overflow.
2- RECHARGERecharge the battery to 100% state-of-charge. If the battery has a difference of 0.03 specific gravity reading between the lowest and highest cell, then you should equalize it.
If a digital voltmeter indicates 0 volts, you have an open cell.
if the digital voltmeter indicates 10.45 to 10.65 volts, you probably have a shorted cell. A shorted cell is caused by plates touching, sediment (“mud”) build-up or “treeing” between the plates.
In cold weather, a good quality booster cable with six-gauge (or less) wire is necessary to provide enough current to the disabled car to start the engine. Larger diameter wire is better. Please check the owner’s manual for BOTH vehicles BEFORE attempting to jump-start. Follow the manual book procedures because some good cars should not be running during a jump-start of a disabled one. However, starting the disabled car with the good car running can prevent having both cars disabled. AVOID the booster cable clamps touching each other or the POSITIVE clamp touching anything but the POSITIVE (+) post of the battery. Momentarily touching the block or frame can cause extensive, costly damage.
6.1. If BELOW 10o F (-12.2o C), insure that the electrolyte is NOT frozen in the dead battery. If frozen, check for a cracked case and thaw BEFORE proceeding. The electrolyte in a dead battery will freeze at approximately 13o F (-10.6o C).
6.2. Without the cars touching, turn off all unnecessary accessories and lights on BOTH cars, insure there is plenty of ventilation, and put on some protective eye ware.
6.3. Start the car with the good battery and let it run for at least two or three minutes at fast idle to recharge its battery and check the positive and negative terminal marking on both batteries BEFORE proceeding.
6.4. Connect the POSITIVE booster cable clamp (usually RED) to the POSITIVE (+) terminal on the dead battery. Connect the POSITIVE clamp on the other end of the booster cable to the POSITIVE (+) terminal on the good battery.
6.5. Connect the NEGATIVE booster cable clamp (usually BLACK) to the NEGATIVE (-) terminal on the good battery and the NEGATIVE booster cable clamp on the other end to a clean, unpainted area on the engine block or frame on the disabled car and AWAY from the battery. This arrangement is to be used because some sparking will occur, and you want to keep sparks as far away from the battery as practical in order to prevent an explosion. 6.6. Let the good carcontinue to run at high idle for five minutes OR MORE to allow the dead battery to receive some recharge and to warm its electrolyte. If there is a bad jumper cable connection, do not wiggle the cable clamps connected to the battery terminals because sparks will occur and an explosion might occur. To check connections, first disconnect the clamp from the engine block, check the other connections, and then reconnect the engine block connection last.
6.7. Some car manufacturers recommend that you turn off the engine of the good car to protect its charging system prior to starting the disabled car. Check the owner’s manual; otherwise, leave the engine running so you can avoid being stranded if the good car will not restart.
6.8. Start the disabled car and allow it to run at high idle. If the car does not start the first time, recheck the connections, and wait a few minutes. Now, try again.
6.9. Disconnect the booster cables in the REVERSE order, starting with the NEGATIVE clamp on the engine block or frame of the disabled car to minimize the possibility of an explosion.
6.10. As soon as possible, fully recharge, remove the surface charge and load test the dead battery for latent or permanent damage as a result of the deep discharge.
A car battery weights between 13.6 and 27.3 Kg, so the first question is, "Do I want to install it myself?" The second question is what do I do with the old battery if not exchanged for the new one? Insure that you have your radio and security codes before disconnecting the old battery. A second battery can be temporarily connected to the electrical system in parallel before disconnecting the first one. If active when the key is off, a cigarette lighter plug can be used to easily connect a parallel battery.
1-Thoroughly wash and clean the old battery, battery terminals and case or tray with warm water to minimize problems from acid or corrosion. Heavy corrosion can be neutralized with a mixture of one pound of baking soda to one gallon of warm water. Wear safety goggles and, using a stiff brush, brush away from yourself. Also, mark the cables so you do not forget which one to reconnect.
2- Remove the NEGATIVE cable first because this will minimize the possibility of shorting the battery when you remove the other cable. It is probably a good idea to secure the cable out of the way so that it does not make any unwanted contact. Next, remove the POSITIVE cable and then the hold-down bracket or clamp. If the hold down bracket is severely corroded, replace it. Dispose of the old battery by exchanging it when you buy your new one or by taking it to a recycling center. According to BCI, over 96% of the old battery lead is recycled, making batteries the most completely recycled object of all recycled items. Please remember that batteries contain large amounts of harmful lead and acid, so take great care with safety and please dispose of your old battery properly to protect our fragile environment.
3- After removing the old battery, insure that the battery tray, cable terminals, and connectors are clean. Auto parts stores sell an inexpensive wire brush that will clean the inside of terminal clamps and the terminals. If the terminals, cables or hold down brackets are severely corroded, replace them. Corroded terminals or swollen cables will significantly reduce your starting capability because of their inability to carry the high current.
4- For SAE type terminals, use paraffin oil-soaked felt washer pads found at auto parts stores or thinly coat the terminal, terminal clamps and exposed metal around the battery with a high temperature grease or petroleum jelly (e.g., Vaseline) to prevent corrosion. Do not use the felt or metal washers between the mating conductive surfaces with General Motors-type side terminal batteries.
5- Check the positive and negative terminal markings on the replacement battery and place it so that the NEGATIVE cable will connect to the NEGATIVE terminal. Reversing the polarity of the electrical system will severely damage or DESTROY it. It can even cause the battery to explode.
6- After replacing the hold-down bracket, reconnect the cables in reverse order, that is, attach the POSITIVE cable first and the NEGATIVE cable last check the length of the bolt. Do NOT over tighten, or you could crack the battery case.
8.2. Before using the battery, check the electrolyte levels and add distilled water to cover the plates. Check the state-of-charge and recharge if necessary. Then recheck the electrolyte levels after the battery has cooled and top off with distilled water as required, but do not overfill.
Parasitic (or key off) drain is the cumulative load produced by electrical devices, for example, clocks, computers, alarms, etc., that operate after the engine is stopped and the ignition key has been switched off. Parasitic loads typically run 20 to 120 milliamps. Glove box, trunk, and under hood lights that do not automatically turn off when the door is closed and shorted diodes in alternators are the most common offenders. Cooling fans, power seat belt retractors, radios and dome lights left on, alarm systems, and electric car antennas have also caused batteries to drain. Leaving your headlights on will generally discharge a fully charged battery, with 90 minutes of Reserve Capacity [36 ampere hours], within a couple of hours. There are two methods that are commonly used to test the parasitic load without the engine running, underhood light disconnected and the car doors closed:
Connect a 12-volt bulb in series between the negative battery cable terminal clamp and the negative battery terminal. If the bulb glows brightly, then start removing fuses one-at-a-time until the offending electrical component is identified.
A better approach is to use a DC amp meter inserted in series with the negative battery terminal. Starting with the highest scale, determine the current load. If the load is above 120 milliamps, then start removing fuses one-at-a-time until the offending electrical component is identified.
Protecting your battery from high under hood temperatures and keeping your battery well maintained are the BEST ways to extend the life of your battery. For cold climates, keeping the battery fully charged and the engine warm will help increase the life of the battery. In warmer climates and during the summer, the electrolyte levels need to be checked more frequently and DISTILLED water added, if required. This is due to high under hood temperatures. Some Studies have shown that relocating the battery outside the engine compartment has increased the average battery life by eight months.
In the warmer climates and during the summer, “watering” is required more often. Check the electrolyte levels and add distilled water, if required. Never add electrolyte to battery that is not fully charged—just add distilled water and do not overfill. The plates must be covered at all times. Keep the top of the battery clean.
Batteries naturally self discharge while in storage, and sulfation will begin occurring when the state-of-charge is 80% or less. Please see Section 16 for more information on sulfation. Cold will slow the process down and heat will speed it up. Here are six simple steps to store your batteries that will protect them from sulfation and premature failure.
1- Physically inspect for damaged cases, remove any corrosion, and clean the batteries.
2- Check the electrolyte levels and add distilled water as required, but avoid overfilling.
3- Fully charge or equalize [controlled overcharge to equalize the voltage and specific gravity in each cell] the batteries.
4- Store them in a cool dry place, but not below 0o C. Depending on the ambient temperature, periodically test the state-of-charge. An alternative would be to connect an automatic [voltage regulated] “trickle” charger to batteries using 13.8 volts and equalize the batteries every couple on months. An automatic charger will keep you from overcharging the batteries.
The amount of time, usually referred to as “airport or garage time," that you can leave your car parked and still start your engine is based on such things as the state-of-charge of the battery, the Reserve Capacity, the amount of natural self discharge and parasitic load, and temperature. Car manufacturers normally design for at least 14 days or more airport time; they assume a fully charged battery in good condition, moderate weather, and no additions to the original car's parasitic load (for example, an aftermarket alarm system). When a battery drops to 80% state-of-charge or less, sulfation starts occurring, and this will reduce the capacity of the battery. If you leave your car parked for more than two weeks, then you have several options:
1-The best option is to connect an automatic electric or solar float “trickle” charger to your car battery. You will need 13.8 VDC and at least 0.5 amps to overcome the natural self-discharge and parasitic load.
2-Install a battery with a larger reserve capacity.
3-Jump the battery and hope that there is no latent damage.
4-Connect a large, deep cycle battery in parallel.
5-Disconnect the negative terminal, but be sure that you have saved any security codes or radio stations that will have to be reprogrammed.
6-Plan to replace the battery if it fails to retain a charge, especially if it is over three years old or sealed, and you live in a hot climate.
7-Have someone drive your car during the day on the highway every two weeks 10 to 15 minutes to recharge the battery.
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
1) PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION
Product : LEAD ACID BATTERY
Company : YİĞİT AKÜ MALZEMELERİ SANAYİ ve TİCARET A.Ş.
Company Address: Organize Sanayi Bölgesi Türkmenistan Cad. No: 27
06935 Sincan / ANKARA TÜRKİYE
Contact Telephone: Tel No: +90 312 267 02 80
Fax No: +90 312 267 08 61
2) HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS
MATERIAL % WEIGHT
Lead (Pb) 50-62
Electrolyte (Sulfuric Acid(H2SO4) and water) 28-35
Polypropylene (PP) (Lid & Box) 6-10
Polyethylene(PE) (Separator) 1-2
3) HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
Routes of entery Under normal conditions of use, sulfuric acid vapors and mist are not generated. Sulfuric acid vapors and mist may be generated when product is overheated, oxidized, or otherwise processed or damaged.
Under normal conditions of use, lead dust, vapors, and fumes are not generated. Hazardous exposure to lead may occur when product is overheated, oxidized, or otherwise processed or damaged to create lead dust, vapor, or fumes.
High levels of sulfuric acid vapors or mist may cause severe respiratory irritation.
Sulfuric acid may cause severe irritation, burns, and ulceration.
Sulfuric acid is not readily absorbed through the skin. Lead compounds are not readily absorbed through the skin.
Sulfuric acid vapors can cause severe irritation, burns, cornea damage, and blindness. Lead compounds may cause irritation.
4) FIRST AID MEASURES
Sulfuric acid: Remove to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult give oxygen. Lead compounds: Remove from exposure, gargle, wash nose and eyes, and consult physician.
Sulfuric acid: Flush with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, remove any contaminated clothing and do not wear again until cleaned. If acid is splashed on shoes, remove and clean. Lead compounds are not readily absorbed through the skin.
Eye contact Sulfuric acid: Flush immediately with cool water for at least 15 minutes, then
Ingestion Sulfuric acid: Give large quantities of water – DO NOT induce vomiting –then consult physician. Lead compounds: Consult a physician.
5) FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA
Extinguishing media: Carbon dioxide (CO2) , foam, dry chemical
If batteries on charge, turn off power. Use positive pressure, self- contained breathing apparatus. Water applied to electrolyte generates heat and causes it to splatter. Wear acid resistant clothing.
Hydrogen and oxygen gases are produced in the cells during normal battery operation or when on charge(hydrogen is highly flammable and oxygen supports combustion). These gases enter the air the vent caps. To avoid risk of fire or explosion, keep sparks and other sources of ignition away from the battery, and ensure that adequate ventilation is provided. Do not allow metallic material to simultaneously contact both the positive and negative terminals of batteries. Follow manufacturers’ instructions for installation and operation.
6) SPILL OF LEAK PROCEDURES
Remove combustible materials and all sources of ignition. Stop flow of material and contain spill by diking with soda ash (sodium carbonate) or quick lime (calcium oxide ). Carefully neutralize spill with soda ash, etc. Make certain mixture is neutral then collect residue and place in a durum or other suitable container with label specifying “contains hazardous waste” or if uncertain call distributor regarding proper labeling procedures. Dispose of as hazardous waste. If battery is leaking, place battery in a heavy-duty plastic bag. Wear acid resistant boots, face shield, chemical splash goggles and acid resistant gloves. DO NOT RELEASE UNNEUTRALIZET ACID.
7) HANDLING AND STORAGE
Store and handle lead acid batteries in well- ventilated areas.
Make certain vent caps are on tightly. Follow all manufacturers’ recommendations when stacking or palletizing. Do not allow metallic materials to simultaneously contact both the positive and negative terminals of the batteries. Use a battery carrier to lift battery or place hands on opposite corners to avoid spilling acid through the vents. Avoid contact with internal components of the batteries.
8) PERSONEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Eyes and face: Chemical splash goggles or face shiled.
Hands, arms, body: Rubber or plastic acid resistant gloves with elbow length gauntlet.
Other special clothing and equipment: Acid resistant apron. Under severe exposure or emergency
conditions, wear acid resistant clothing and boots.
Hygiene practices: Wash hands thoroughly before eating, drinking or smoking after handling batteries.
Protective measures to be taken during
non- routine tasks including equipment maintenance: Charged batteries can present an electrical hazard. Take all appropriate precautions.
9) PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Electrolyte : Sulfuric acid and water
Boiling point: (760 mm-Hg): 197-216 0C
Specific gravity: 1,23 - 1,35 g/cm3
Vapor density (air =1): >1
Appearance and odor: Electrolyte is a clear liquid with a sharp, penetrating, pungent odor.
Vapor pressure (20 0C): 10 mm-Hg
Solubility in water (% by Wt.): %100
Evaporation rate (Butyl acetate =1): <1
Explosion Limit (Hydrogen gas): At least: %4,65 Top: %93,9
10) STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Conditions to avoid Sparks and other sources of ignition. Prolonged overcharge and overheating.
Incompatibility (material to avoid) Combination of sulfuric acid with combustibles, and organic materials may cause fire and explosion. Also avoid strong reducing agents, most metals, carbides chlorates, nitrates, picrate. Lead compound: potassium. Carbides, sulfides, peroxides, phosphorus, and sulfur.
Hazardous decomposition products Sulfuric acid: hydrogen, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfuric acid mist.
Hazardous polymerization Will not occur
11) TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Acute effects Sulfuric acid may cause severe skin irritation, upper respiratory irritation, burns, damage to cornea, and possible blindness. Lead compounds may cause abdominal pain, nausea, headages, vomiting, diarrhea, severe cramping, and difficulty in sleeping.
Oral LD50 (oral, rat) : 2140 mg/kg ( %25 concentration electrolyte)
Oral LC50 (inh. rat) : 510 mg/m3 /2H ( at dilute element)
Oral LC50 (Mouse) : 320 mg/m3 /2H
Chronic effects Sulfuric acid may lead to scarring of the cornea, inflammation of nose, throat and bronchial tubes, and possible erosion of tooth enamel. Lead compounds may cause anemia, and damage to the kidneys and nervous system. May cause reproductive harm in both and males and females.
Cause Cancer Human studies are inconclusive regarding lead exposure and an increased cancer risk. The EPA and the international Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have categorized lead and inorganic lead compounds as B2 classification (probable/ possible human carcinogen) based on sufficient animal evidence and inadequate human evidence. Its acid has Group 1 carcinogen according to IARC.
12) ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
The lead acid battery is harmful to aquatic life. It may be dangerous if it enters water intakes. The aquatic toxicity for bluegill in fresh water was 24.5 ppm/24hr, which was lethal. Fish Toxicity; 2.8 μg/L 96 hrs LC50 Rainbow trout.
13) DISPOSAL CONSIDERATION
Sulfuric acid: Neutralize as described above for a spill, collect residue and place in a container labeled as container labeled as containing hazardous waste. Dispose of as a hazardous waste. If uncertain about labeling procedures call your local battery distributor. DO NOT FLUSH LEAD CONTAMINATED ACID TO SEWER.
Batteries: Send to lead recycling facility following applicable federal, state, and local regulations.
14) TRANSPORT INFORMATION
Accordance with international regulations.
Land & Railroad: ADR
Sea route: IMCO8
15) REGULATORY INFORMATION
Batteries has safety precautions labeling according to European Standard EN 60095-1 Lead-Acid Starter Batteries Part 1: General requirements and methods of test .
R5, R8, R10, R26/27/28, R36/37/38, R4, R4, R5, R58
S7/9, S24/25, S29/56 , S36/37/39
16) OTHER INFORMATION
Battery posts, terminals, and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds, chemical known to cause cancer and reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.
The Who International Agency for research on cancer have conclude that occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to man, causing cancer of the larynx (the voice box) and, to a lesser extent, the lung. Although no direct link has been established between exposure to sulfuric acid, itself, and cancer in man, exposure to any mist or aerosol during the use of this product should be avoided and, any case, keep exposures below the occupational limit of sulfuric acid.
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